Author: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue
Transport systems support complex economic and social interactions and are thus a component of society. Transportation reflects the aspirations of a society such as accessibility and mobility, which expands its horizon.
1. Mobility and Society
Mobility is one of the most fundamental and important characteristics of human activities as it satisfies the basic need of going from one location to the other, a need shared by passengers and freight for different purposes.
Mobility is a multidimensional concept since it simultaneously expresses the potential for a movement as well as the movement itself. It is at start a choice to be exercised or not depending on economic and social goals.
Irrespective of its aim, mobility enables social, cultural, political, and economic activities to take place. Throughout history, changes in mobility have been the outcome of technological developments that improved operational characteristics such as speed, range, price, affordability, and comfort. These changes improved societies and the quality of life of populations. For instance, the diffusion of highways and the automobile had profound impacts on the mobility of contemporary societies and continue to do so.
Regions do not share the same level of mobility from an internal and comparative perspective. A mobility transition has been observed towards motorized forms of transport, a process commonly linked with economic development. Regions that possess greater mobility are often those with better opportunities to develop than those with scarce mobility. Reduced mobility impedes development while greater mobility is a catalyst for development. Mobility is thus a reliable indicator of development. Providing mobility is an industry that offers services to its customers, employs people and disburses wages, invests capital, generates income and provides taxation revenue. Mobility is, therefore, the recurring aspect where transportation has its most significant societal impacts.
For economic activities transportation allows access a workforce, reach suppliers and service customers. With improvements in transportation, interactions with the workforce are more effective and the costs of distribution usually decline with the derived competitive benefits. Most individuals have extensive experience with transportation since they are regular users. Transportation is the means to access employment, goods, services, leisure, and social networks and using transportation is often a social experience, at times negative (e.g. comfort, safety). Thus, a share of societal consumption is allocated to satisfy mobility needs. Paradoxically, higher income levels are usually associated with a higher share of transportation in consumption, a trend particularly attributed to automobile ownership and air travel. The higher the income, the greater its share spent on mobility as mobility is a symbol of social status.
Mobility is an activity which is constrained by a number of factors which when applied across social groups lead to a number of observations:
- There are variations in the propensity, intensity, and scale of mobility which is linked to differences in the availability of transportation resources, including infrastructure.
- There are variations in the daily travel behavior that are manifest in the frequency, time, mode and distance of travel.
- There are variations in transport accessibility resulting in different opportunities.
For an individual, irrespective of their social group, time limits the daily number of trips and their lengths. These constraints are however technologically, socially and economically articulated since more efficient transport modes are supportive of more extensive mobilities as well as higher incomes. Thus, an individual would have a mobility contingent to physical capabilities, available budget, transport supply and the spatial distribution of activities such as residential, commercial and manufacturing areas. Further, the social context of mobility is changing in part because of its impacts. Mobility can be a factor of weaker social interactions as individuals could be living further apart. At the same time, expanded mobility enables social interactions that were not effectively possible beforehand. This is particularly the case for long-distance interactions that have expanded with the growth of air transport.
Transportation is not a homogeneous system, but as a set of diverse elements at times in competition. Access and services are not uniform. While many of the social and economic impacts of transportation are positive, there are also significant societal challenges.
2. Mobility Gaps
Since mobility is one of the fundamental components of the economic benefits of transportation, its variations are likely to have substantial impacts on the employment, educational and social opportunities of individuals. There are three forms of gaps:
- Unequal mobility between social groups and their respective transport resources, such as car ownership and access to public transit.
- Differences in travel behavior between groups, including average distance, frequency and travel time.
- Inequalities in accessibility to services such as retail and opportunities such as employment.
The World Bank estimates that 1 billion people around the world do not have direct access to a paved road, undermining their mobility. The dichotomy between rural and urban transportation is an important mobility gap. Rural areas differ particularly because of the lower population density than urban areas and a less diversified economy with a focus on agriculture and related activities. However, some rural areas in developing economies such as India and China have higher densities than urban areas in advanced economies such as Europe and the United States. The main mobility differences between rural and urban areas involve longer average travel distances, a lower density of transportation infrastructure, with agricultural equipment (e.g. tractors) and animals using roads with related hazards (accidents).
Mobility needs do not always coincide due to several factors, namely the lack of income, lack of time, lack of means and the lack of access. People’s mobility and transport demand thus depend on their socioeconomic status. The higher the income, the higher the mobility, which may give rise to substantial mobility gaps between different population groups. There are mismatches between the location of people with low income and the areas where employment and services are available. The more significant these mismatches in terms of accessibility, the higher the gaps.
Gender gaps exist in mobility as women tend to have lower levels of mobility, which is in part attributable to lower incomes, work preferences and social roles such as family care. This is particularly the case in developing economies since, in more advanced economies, the labor force participation of women has increased, thus alleviating gender differences. Mobility patterns by gender tend to be similar for younger age groups, but differences increase as women reach child caretaking years. This is associated with shorter travels and trip chaining to perform several activities along a trip sequence.
Mobility gaps are particularly prevalent for long-distance travel. With the development of air transport, a segment of the global population has achieved a very high level of mobility for their business and leisure activities, while the great majority of the global population has little mobility. This issue is expected to become more acute as the population of many advanced economies is aging rapidly, which implies that mobility will be more than an income issue, but also an age issue. An aging population has more difficulties operating vehicles and using transport systems. Further, an aging population has on average less disposable income.
Locations that have low levels of accessibility tend to have higher costs for many goods. This can play at several geographical scales, from the national to the local. For landlocked countries, most of the goods must be imported through an intermediate country, often over long distances. The resulting higher transport costs inhibit the competitiveness of such locations and limit opportunities. Consumers, retailers, and industries will pay higher prices, impacting on their welfare (disposable income) and competitiveness.
At the local level, some neighborhoods are poorly serviced with goods such as groceries and other basic necessities. This leads to paradoxical effects that populations in poorer neighborhoods can pay higher prices for basic goods in part due to the lack of demand and higher distribution costs. Employment clusters in suburban areas are often designed to be accessible only by the automobile, with limited consideration to public transit. This undermines the employment opportunities of those not having access to a vehicle.
3. The Social Externalities of Transportation
With increased mobility, it has become common for parts of transportation networks to be used above design capacity, particularly in urban areas. Congestion is the outcome of such a situation with its associated costs, delays, and waste of energy (congestion is addressed in more detail in the Urban Transport Challenges section). Distribution systems that rely upon on-time deliveries are particularly susceptible to congestion as well as commuters seeking to arrive at work on time. In addition, to involve additional costs, congestion involves additional time which is perceived to be increasingly valuable in advanced economies.
Still, from societal standpoint congestion is an ambiguous issue. First, congestion is commonly the outcome of economic success as the level of mobility exceeds what was initially anticipated and designed for. Further, different socioeconomic groups will have different levels of tolerance to congestion as each may have a different time value preference. On the positive side, the diffusion of information technologies offers drivers and passengers a wider range of activities to perform while in transit.
The use of transport modes and infrastructure is never entirely safe. Every motorized vehicle contains an element of danger and nuisance. Due to human errors and various forms of physical failures (mechanical or infrastructural) injuries, damages and even death occur. Accidents tend to be proportional to the intensity of use of transport infrastructures which means with more traffic the higher the probability for an accident to occur. The most important segments of road transport infrastructure are also those that inflict the most externalities. They have important socioeconomic impacts including healthcare, insurance, damage to property and the loss of life. Therefore, public policy has focused on different aspects of transportation safety such as vehicles, infrastructure design, and operating conditions.
The respective level of safety depends on the mode of transport and the speed at which an accident occurs. No mode is completely safe, but the road remains the riskiest mode for transportation, accounting for 90% of all transport accidents on average. At the global level, about 1.35 million people died in road accidents in 2016, in addition to 50 million injuries. Although the number of deaths due to car accidents is declining in developed countries, in developing economies, death rates are usually at least twice as high as those of developed countries and account for close to 90% of all deaths. China has the world’s largest number of fatalities, 261,000 in 2013, a situation mainly due to a sharp growth in vehicle ownership, a lack of driver education and enforcement of regulations. Another trend is the rise in the number of pedestrian deaths after years of decline, a trend in part attributable to changes in vehicle preferences, suburbanization and even the rapid diffusion of portable mobile devices such as smartphones.
The convenience of mobility, particularly through the diffusion of the automobile and its associated suburban lifestyle, is linked with a lack of physical activity and rising obesity. The easier it is to move over short distances through mechanical means such as vehicles, elevators, and escalators, the fewer users are incited to walk. There can be thus a societal drawback to convenient mobility since a population could be walking and therefore exercising less. Such a trend is complex to mitigate and the design of more walking and cycling friendly neighborhoods has been advocated. They would convey some improved health benefits for their residents.
All these issues underline the social implications of transportation in terms of opportunities, but as well in terms of social exclusion. Significant factors of social exclusion have a transportation component such as difficulties to afford transportation (public or private), transportation services that do not cover well demand, and a lack of appropriate infrastructures such as sidewalks and waiting areas. Land use and housing policies can have the unintended consequence of undermining access to employment, education, healthcare, and other social activities. If this separation is not mitigated by efficient transportation, it becomes a factor of segregation. Under such circumstances, the high level of subsidies that public transit systems are receiving is made socially acceptable as a form of support to the mobility of those perceived to be less advantaged. A similar observation applies to congestion and pricing schemes as the poorer segments of the population are less able to afford financial restrictions on mobility, even if undertaken with the rationale of managing scarce assets. The road remains perceived as a public good and impairing its free use becomes a divisive social issue.
4. The Environment as a Social Transportation Challenge
The mobility provided by transport activities has a wide range of environmental consequences, which have a cost that must be assumed by the users and society. While many environmental issues can have negative health impacts, societal tolerance to environmental externalities has significantly evolved. As income and levels of education increase, society becomes more aware of environmental concerns and has less tolerance for its negative impacts.
The most salient environmental challenges having social consequences include:
- Air quality. Atmospheric emissions from pollutants produced transportation, especially by the internal combustion engine, are associated with air pollution and global climate change. Some pollutants (NOx, CO, O3, VOC, etc.) can produce respiratory troubles and aggravate cardiovascular illnesses. It is estimated that 3 million deaths per year are related to air pollution, although the contribution of transportation is less clear. In urban regions, about 50% of all air pollution emanates from automobile traffic. Since pollution is a health issue, its societal impacts are perceived to be significant with air quality commonly a source of social concern.
- Noise. A major irritant, noise can impact human health and most often human welfare. Noise can be manifested at different levels depending on emissions intensity; psychological disturbances (perturbations, displeasure), functional disturbances (sleep disorders, loss of work productivity, speech interference) or physiological disturbances (health issues such as fatigue, and hearing damage). Noise and vibration associated with trains, trucks, and planes in the vicinity of transport terminals are main roads are major irritants and have commonly been associated with lower land values since it makes those locations less desirable.
- Water quality. The main association between transportation and water quality involves accidental and nominal runoff of pollutants such as oil spills, which are sources of contamination for both surface water and groundwater. In addition, paved surfaces are more prone to floods with intense rainfall, implying that the footprint of transportation infrastructure can have multiplying effects.
- Footprint. Transport is a large consumer of space when all its supporting infrastructure and equipment are considered. This footprint is subject to competition between other activities and reflects societal values, particularly in terms of the space allocated to automobile use. Furthermore, the planning associated with transportation infrastructures does not always consider aesthetic values as is often the case in the construction of urban highways. These visual impacts have adverse consequences on the quality of life of nearby residents.
The most common way for a society to mitigate the environmental externalities of transportation is to impose regulations related to standards, levels of emissions, and operating conditions. This comes from various regulatory agencies having jurisdiction, and advocacy groups are also playing a significant role in promoting and defending environmental concerns. Many transportation infrastructure projects, such as roads, terminals, and pipelines, have become embattled into public debates over environmental and, at times, aesthetic concerns. This is indicative of a societal change requiring careful consideration of not only technical and commercial aspects of transportation infrastructure, but their level of social acceptance, or at least tolerance. The situation can go as far as a widespread NIMBY (Not In My Backyard) attitude that prevents, stall, and increase the cost of transport infrastructure development. Under such circumstances, society becomes an active force preventing transport development, which may lead to future development challenges due to the lack of infrastructure.
- Urban Transport Challenges
- Information Technologies and Mobility
- Transportation and Commercial Geography
- Transport Costs
- Transport Supply and Demand
- The Emergence of Mechanized Transportation Systems
- The Setting of Global Transportation Systems
- Transport and Spatial Organization
- Transportation and Economic Development
- The Environmental Impacts of Transportation
- Banister, D. (2018) Inequality in Transport, Marcham, Oxfordshire: Alexandrine Press.
- Berry, B.J.L. (1967) Geography of Market Centers and Retail Distribution, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
- Hall, P. (1984) The World Cities. 3rd edition. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
- Lucas, K. (2013) “Transport and Social Exclusion”, in J-P Rodrigue, T. Notteboom and J. Shaw (eds) The Sage Handbook of Transport Studies, London: Sage.
- OECD (2017) Income Inequality, Social Inclusion and Mobility, Roundtable Report 164, International Transportation Forum, Paris: OECD.
- Pred, A. (1977) City Systems in Advanced Economies: Past Growth, Present Processes and Future Development Options, New York: Wiley.
- United Nations Development Programme (2009) Human Development Report 2009, Overcoming barriers: Human mobility and development. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.