Since transportation can produce significant benefits but gives rise to many negative externalities, appropriate policies need to be devised to maximize its benefits and minimize its inconveniences. The allocation, design, and construction of transport infrastructure and services must be subject to careful planning, both by public and private agencies. A distinction must be drawn between policy and planning since the former usually relates the strategies and goals while the latter refers to concrete actions. Because they both must reflect the fundamental changes in society and contemporary issues and problems, policies and planning are constantly changing. For instance, the changing orientation of public policy led to deregulation in many transport sectors. Among the core policy issues, transport safety and security have come to the forefront. Natural and anthropogenic disasters are also serious challenges in transport planning.