Transport systems, by the mobility they provide, are closely related to socioeconomic changes. Economic opportunities are likely to arise where transportation infrastructures can ensure access to markets and resources. From the industrial revolution in the 19th century to globalization and economic integration processes of the late 20th and early 21st centuries, regions of the world have been affected differently by economic development. International, regional, and local transportation systems alike have become fundamental components of economic activities. A growing share of the wealth is thus linked to trade and distribution. However, even if transportation has positive impacts on socioeconomic systems, there are also negative consequences such as congestion, accidents, and mobility gaps. Transportation is also a commercial activity that derives benefits from operational attributes such as costs, capacity, efficiency, reliability, and speed. Transportation systems are evolving within a complex set of relationships between the transport supply, reflecting the operational capacity of the network, and transport demand, the mobility requirements of an economy.