Transport systems, by the mobility they provide, are closely related to socioeconomic changes. Economic opportunities will likely arise where transportation infrastructures can ensure access to markets and resources. From the industrial revolution in the 19th century to globalization and economic integration processes of the late 20th and early the 21st centuries, world regions have been affected differently by economic development. International, regional, and local transportation systems have become fundamental components of economic activity. A growing share of the wealth is thus linked to trade and distribution. However, even if transportation positively impacts socioeconomic systems, there are also negative consequences, such as congestion, accidents, and mobility gaps. Transportation is also a commercial activity that benefits from operational attributes such as costs, capacity, efficiency, reliability, and speed. Transportation systems are evolving within a complex set of relationships between the transport supply, reflecting the operational capacity of the network, transport demand, and the mobility requirements of an economy.