|Inbound Logistics||Optimization of warehouse usage; logistics modeling|
|Sales and Marketing||GIS as a market analysis tool; simulation of dispersion of new products; target marketing and advertising|
|Services||Route planning; dealer network maintenance; customer complaints; dispatch; maintenance forecasting|
|Operations||Enhancing the spatial content of process or product|
|Outbound Logistics||Route planning; fleet management; delivery assessment|
Source: adapted from Hendriks, P.H.J., (1998) “Information Strategies for Geographical Information Systems”, International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Vol. 12, No. 6: pp. 621-639.