There are three major types of transport regulations:
- Economic regulations. Mainly impact issues related to capital allocation and pricing in terms of who is responsible for the construction and maintenance of transport infrastructures and assets. Can also involve the routes that transport operators are allowed to use, which ports of entry are available for international flows, and various price controls concerning the inputs of the transport sector. Rules can also be applied concerning barriers of entry, what can be owned, and competition.
- Operating regulations. Mainly impact issues related to the operation of the transport system, including speed limits and permits. Cargo and passenger security is also an important aspect commonly falling under the jurisdiction of the public sector.
- Environmental regulations. Mainly impact the externalities of transport operations, such as noise and the emission of pollutants. Carbon emissions have taken a more central role with a focus on decarbonization.