Source: Adapted from P. Cariou. Port management lecture notes.
Port activities cover a wide range of functions. For instance, maritime access involves activities such as the dredging of access channels, the construction of breakwaters (if required), the setting of vessel traffic services to help navigation to approach and navigate within the port as well as buoys and other navigation aids. All these activities fall under different branches but tend to be coordinated by port authorities. Infrastructure investments and developments are usually made by port authorities, while superstructure investments are made by terminal operators, many of which are private companies leasing the terminal. All these activities are necessary for the planning, development, and operation of a port and are part of its incurred costs.