To support their mobility, passengers have several modal options depending on the type of movement (e.g. commuting, traveling), the concerned distance, and modal availability. They fall into four general categories:
- Air. Air transport services usually come as scheduled services offered by competing air carriers within their respective networks. Based upon scheduled services posted several months in advance, a traveler (or someone acting on his/her behalf) will be able to book an itinerary that may include several flight segments. Charter air services are usually offered under specific circumstances, such as seasonal flights towards resort areas or private jets servicing the mobility needs of a corporation or an individual. They tend to be point-to-point services.
- Road. It offers a range of motorized and non-motorized options for mobility that dominantly takes place over short distances that a user may opt for depending on affordability, convenience, availability, and comfort. The automobile has emerged as a preferred form of passenger transportation as it offers flexibility and convenience but also contributes to congestion, particularly in urban areas. Taxi either refer to conventional for-hire services or ride-sharing services. However, strategies promoting sustainable transportation systems underlie the importance of walking, cycling, and emerging forms of personal mobility (e.g. electric scooters) are essential for short-distance mobility. The term micromobility is often used to refer to small electric or human-powered transportation devices.
- Rail. Intercity passenger services that have been active in many parts of the world for a century and a half are being expanded by setting up high-speed rail (HSR) services between high-density city pairs. Another salient form of rail services concerns urban transit systems that rely on specific rail technology applications. Subway systems support the densest forms of mobility in large metropolitan areas. Such systems are usually supported by commuter rail linking a central station to a network of satellite cities. Light rail transit (LRT) systems are also set in lower-density situations.
- Maritime. The role of maritime transportation to move passengers has substantially declined but remains essential for ferry services. The cruise ship is not used as a form of transportation but as a touristic option between a network of ports of call.