The spatial organization of transportation and mobility
Externalities of Noise Pollution
Economic Costs. Noise levels have an impact on property values, particularly around airports. Declines in property values for residential areas range from 0.4 to 1.1% per decibel, with an average value of 0.62%. For highways a decrease from 8 to 10% of property values due to noise emissions was observed.
Social Costs. Limited information is available on the health costs related to noise emissions by transportation. It can only be speculated some hearing losses imputed to continuous high levels of exposure, including stress levels imposed by a continuous exposure to noise and / or lack of sleep.
Environmental Costs. Environmental costs of noise emissions are very difficult to assess. It is assumed that some living areas are not accessible to wildlife due to high noise levels emitted by different transportation modes (e.g. inter-city highways).