|Thermal energy used for mechanical energy||Mechanization of spinning and weaving||Mass production of steel (shipbuilding, rails, construction and agricultural machines)||Modern transport and telecommunication systems|
|First water pump (1712) in mines.|
Watt (1769); significant improvements.
Steam locomotive (1824).
Electric generator (1831).
Steam turbine (1884).
|“Flying shuttle” (1733) doubled weaving productivity.|
“Spinning jenny” (1765).
“Water frame” (1768); hydraulic power.
“Spinning Mule” (1779); steam power.
Sewing machine (1846).
|Coke instead of coal for iron production (1709).|
Bessemer process (1855).
The industrial revolution involved the diffusion of several technological innovations in four main sectors:
- Power generation. Enabled to perform larger quantities of work through the usage of thermal energy.
- Textiles. Development of the first mass-market for consumer goods.
- Metallurgy. Low-cost metals used to manufacture equipment and infrastructure.
- Transportation. Mass conveyances and telecommunication systems.