Modes Used for Petroleum Transportation

VolumesLargeVery largeSmallLarge
MaterialsCrude / ProductsCrude / ProductsProductsProducts
Scale2 ML+10 ML+100 kL5-60 kL
Unit costsVery lowLowHighVery high
Capital costsHighMediumLowVery low
AccessVery limitedVery limitedLimitedHigh
Responsiveness1-4 weeks7 days2-4 days4-12 hours
UsageLong haulLong haulMedium haulShort haul

Source: adapted from Ken Dymock (2007) General Manager, Distribution, Petro Canada, Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport, Transportation Situation & Outlook Conference.