Source: adapted from M. van de Voort and A. Rahman (2004) “Securing Global Supply Chains”, Port Technology International, 24th Edition, pp. 67-70.
The security of transport systems involves several dimensions:
- Contents. Ensuring that the cargo being carried is what is stated on the bill of lading or that passengers being carried are those on the manifest. Inspections by custom agencies are commonly undertaken with a variety of methods ranging from a simple direct visual inspection, a random check of cargo elements, or a remote inspection involving scanning (e.g. gamma rays) or sensors (air sample analysis). Discrepancies are likely to trigger additional inspections and further delays. Another quick method is the cross-referencing of the stated cargo contents to identify unusual cargo based on the origin, the carrier, and the destination, which requires a rule-based expert system. International and national security agencies are also maintaining lists of passengers and passenger profiles subject to risks.
- Integrity. Ensuring that the contents of the cargo remain unchanged between the origin and the destination, which involves ways to detect unauthorized access. Through the usage of locks, alarms, or sensors, unauthorized access is prevented and recorded when taking place.
- Route. Ensuring that the routing follows the scheduled route and that it remains within secure modes and locations, such as terminals and distribution centers. An unexpected deviation from the route can be subject to an alarm and warrant scrutiny.
- Information. Ensuring that the information about the cargo or passengers is authenticated and verifiable. This means that critical information cannot be accessed or modified without credentials.