Source: Airports Council International.
There is a convergence between passenger and freight activity in East and Southeast Asia (including South Asia). While Japan and South Korea can be considered relatively mature markets, the prospects for future growth in passenger air transportation across the region are highly positive. China is developing a substantial internal air transport market dominated by the hubs of Beijing (PEK), Shanghai (PVG/SHA), Guangzhou (CAN), and Chengdu (CTU). Jakarta (CGK) and Manila (MNL) are important hubs due to the archipelago nature of Indonesia and the Philippines, which incites concentration.
Since many of the coastal cities of the region are also major export centers, large concentrations of air cargo activity have emergence around Bangkok (BKK), Singapore (SIN), the Pearl River Delta (HKG/CAN), and the Yangtze River Delta (PVG). Japan (NRT), Taiwan (TPE), and South Korea (ICN) remain important exporters of high-value goods, but trade is increasingly regional (supplying regional value chains).