An average 1.5-ton car comprises about 100 systems (e.g. engine, transmission, cooling, steering, braking, etc.) and between 8,000 and 10,000 different components. In relation to the total mass, ferrous metals (steel), plastics, and aluminum account for 81%. This material intensity is associated by strong demands generated by the car industry on activities such as steel and aluminum making. It also generates waste in terms of discarded vehicles and parts, opening up opportunities for circular material flows.