Note: Data in Exajoules. Source: International Energy Agency.
Globalization has been associated with shifts in the pattern of energy consumption, which has implied a growing share of transportation in total energy consumption. While the transport sector consumed 25.2% of the energy in 1971, this share climbed to 34.8% in 2019. The growing level of motorization is a core component behind this relative growth, including the growth of international trade (maritime shipping and air transportation). Non-energy uses mostly relate to the petrochemical industry where petroleum is used to manufacture products such as plastics or fertilizers. Other sectors concern agriculture (powering farm equipment), commercial and public services (power generation), and residential (heating and cooling).