Source: Adapted from World Economic Forum, SIMSystem: Designing Seamless Integrated Mobility.
Contemporary mobility systems are supported by physical, digital (information) and regulatory (rules) foundations. While physical (e.g. infrastructures) and regulatory (governance, policies) issues are well understood, the digital dimension has considerably evolved in recent years with the introduction of new information technologies. Among the most significant:
- Access devices. A whole array of computing devices, such as computers and smartphones, able to access telecommunication networks and retrieve, process, and send information.
- Geospatial services. Computing devices able to provide real-time locational information that can be used for a variety of purposes including vehicle tracking and navigation. They can also include other sensors that can be used to supply visual information (optical character recognition or environment processing) or attribute information (temperature, pressure, humidity, etc.).
- Connectivity networks. A range of telecommunication systems enabling components of the information system to communicate, which include wired and wireless networks.
- Open data exchanges. A set of standards allowing information exchange and storage that can be handled by all the devices.
- Integrated payments. A system that allows actors, such as financial institutions, to settle transactions, such as contracts, purchases, tolls or fares.
- Cloud services. A distributed network of servers able to offer massive storage, retrieval, and processing of data.
- Blockchain. An encrypted ledger system able to accurately record events and transactions into records called blocks.