Source: Rioux, J-P (1989) La révolution industrielle 1780-1880, Paris: Éditions du Seuil, p. 197.
Urbanization began to occur at a larger scale during the later part of the industrial revolution (1850-1925), mainly through a migration from the countryside to cities. By 1870, about half of the population of the first main industrial nations was no longer in the agricultural sector. England had reached this stage since 1820. By 1910, 94% of the English population lived in cities. This spurred a significant demand for urban transportation and the development of the first transit systems. The spatial distribution of the population changed, notably its level of concentration, as it urbanized.