Source: Adapted from the Oppenheimer Group.
Cold chain logistics have enabled the availability of fresh produce almost continually. What used to be only seasonally available can now be provided year-round, either because the supply is in a tropical with a continuous growing season, it is grown in controlled conditions (e.g. greenhouses), or because of the ability to switch to supply sources according to seasonal variations. For instance, bananas and pineapples are available year-round because they are grown in tropical countries like Costa Rica or Ecuador. Other products such as apples, citrus, and grapes are grown seasonally in different parts of the world, conferring a constant level of availability (although quantities will vary). Produce price will thus fluctuate according to the quantity produced, the distances involved, and its perishability. The most stable price is usually found in the banana trade because of the large economies of scale in this sector, well-developed cold chain logistics, and year-round production.