Geographical Scales of the Environmental Externalities of Transportation


Local Scale Regional Scale Global Scale
Noise and vibrations Acid rain and acid depositions Climate Change (Carbon dioxide, CFCs)
Carbon monoxide, Odors Ozone layer depletion (CFCs)
Smog, Nitrogen oxides, HC/VOC, Particulates, lead Reduction of fossil fuel reserves
Sulfur dioxide, Ozone
Accidental and intentional releases
De-icing of infrastructure, Runoffs
Marine vessels discharges and spills
Construction and maintenance of infrastructure